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高中化学实验的价值充分体现
发布时间: 2018-12-24 | 来源:未知 |  本文被阅读 次
高中化学实验的价值充分体现探讨;
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一、利用学生对实验的好奇心
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培养学生的良好的预习习惯化学是九年级的起始学科,根据学生的已有知识和能力,一开始就让学生先预习,然后带着问题听课,把书本知识和教师授课内容融合起来,把知识的传授作为一个过程,让学生学会学习,化学实验探究作为化学教学的一个过程,一种手段,教师可以利用学生观看演示实验的热情和自己动手做实验的渴望。布置学生预习,培养学生有目的、手段、方法后,再动手操作,让初三化学中有限的实验探究充分发挥作用。例如:第一章中《走进化学实验室》要学生认识多种化学仪器和药品,我课前布置预习如下内容:1.把书上所有的仪器图和名称看一看。2.你对哪些仪器特别有兴趣,为什么?3.你能记住哪些仪器?根据以后我们日常生活和科学实验,你能和老师一道画一些常见的仪器吗?画时你发现有规律可寻吗?上课时,我首先有序地安排学生参观化学实验室的药品、仪器盛列,并把课本中要求的仪器放在实验台上,请学生介绍他感兴趣的仪器并把仪器名称写在黑板上,以及他看一遍记住的仪器:哪些仪器不容易记住?为什么?上台介绍仪器的同学十分投入,台下的学生听得非常认真。那些学习能力差的学生也会对照课本,指出台上同学的错误。画仪器图时学生更是全身心投入,互相指出毛病。课堂气氛十分活跃,学生先预习,在听课时老师始终以教材为主线,充分发挥了教材的作用。课堂上教师是导演,学生都是主演,学生的预习和积极参与使教学达到事半功倍的效果。
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二、让学生参与教师的演示实验
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培养学生动手、动脑能力布鲁纳的发现学习理论认为:“认识是一种过程,而不是一种产品。”学习的主要目的不是要记住教师和教材所讲的内容,不是要学生成为科学知识的接受者,而应是主动的、积极的知识探究者。这时教师的作用是要设定一种学生能独立探究的情景,引导学生获得知识,而不是为学生提供现成的知识,充分相信和调动学生的积极性,废除课一言堂,45分钟满堂灌的应试教育做法。课堂上大胆让学生动手做演示实验,学生在做好充分预习的基础上,课前在老师指导下练习,确保课堂实验成功。由于学生参与课堂演示实验,课堂气氛变得宽松、活跃,学生观察实验的注意力更加集中,同学们在仔细、认直观察实验的同时,也关心着同伴实验成功与否,上台演示的同学则可以享受到实验成功的喜悦,即使是失败的教训也可以使他终身受益。哪些学生能荣幸上台演示呢?根据实验类型与难度,挑选学生时可以作为对学习有明显进步学生的奖励,还可以作为学习成绩欠佳,而动手能力较强学生的奖励;更可以推荐优秀学生作为同学们学习的榜样,让学生积极主动参与教学。多数的课堂演示和课内实验探究都可以让学生参与,如《人呼出的气体与吸入气体的探究》中往澄清石灰水中吹入二氧化碳:用排水法收集人呼出的气体。在感叹这一实验现象的同时思考并解释为什么出现这样的景象。另外在氧气、二氧化碳的实验室制法及性质实验以及酸碱盐的性质等实验中,为学生创造更多的动手机会,老师课前布置的预习中要让学生了解并掌握操作要领和步骤,让他们动手,不怕学生做错,师生共同活动,共同参与设计实验报告,这样,学生既是课堂的主体,更是化学实验中的主角。在实验过程中学生的双手更加灵巧,思维更加成熟。
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三、用化学实验解决学习上的问题
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培养学生的思维能力实验、观察与思考是获取知识有效的基本方法之一,心理学家认为:感知和观察是认识过程中的第一阶段,亦是直接认识阶段,人在感知、观察的基础上才能主生表象、想象和思维等认识的高级阶段。九年级学生实验除了数量上有限外,在质量上存在按教材统一模式进行,学生的创造性思维得不到很好的培养和发展的弊端。为填补此类不足,教师可以把学生学习中碰到的有代表性的问题,如:能拓宽思路、发展创造性思维的典型例子,经过精心的设计,安排成学生实验。由学生自己探究,自己探索,亲自动手、观察。在体验成功和失败中认识问题、解决问题。
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1. Utilizing Students'Curiosity in Experiments
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Developing students'good habit of preview chemistry is the starting subject of ninth grade. According to students' existing knowledge and ability, students are allowed to preview at the beginning, then listen to the class with questions, integrate book knowledge and teacher's teaching content, and take knowledge imparting as a process, so that students can learn to learn, chemical experiment inquiry as a process of chemistry teaching, a means, teachers can. Use the enthusiasm of students to watch demonstration experiments and their desire to do experiments by themselves. After arranging students'preview, cultivating students' purposeful, means and methods, then operating, let the limited experimental exploration in junior three chemistry play a full role. For example, in the first chapter, "Entering the Chemical Laboratory" requires students to know a variety of chemical instruments and medicines. Before class, I arranged the following contents: 1. Take a look at all the instrument drawings and names in the book. 2. Which instruments are you particularly interested in and why? 3. What instruments can you remember? According to our daily life and scientific experiments in the future, can you draw some common instruments with your teachers? Do you find any regularity in drawing? In class, I first arranged the students to visit the pharmaceuticals and instruments in the chemical laboratory in an orderly way, and put the instruments required in the textbooks on the experimental platform. The students were asked to introduce the instruments they were interested in and write down the names of the instruments on the blackboard. He also looked at the instruments he remembered once: Which instruments are not easy to remember? Why? The students who came to the stage to introduce the instrument were very devoted, and the students under the stage listened very carefully. Those students with poor learning ability will also refer to textbooks and point out the mistakes of their classmates on stage. When drawing instrument drawings, students devote themselves wholeheartedly to pointing out each other's faults. Classroom atmosphere is very active. Students preview first. Teachers always take textbooks as the main line and give full play to the role of textbooks. In the classroom, teachers are directors and students are actors. Students'preview and active participation make the teaching achieve twice the result with half the effort.
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2. Let students participate in teachers'demonstration experiments
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Bruner's Discovery Learning Theory, which aims to cultivate students'practical and mental abilities, holds that "knowledge is a process, not a product." The main purpose of learning is not to remember what teachers and textbooks say, not to make students the recipients of scientific knowledge, but to actively and actively explore knowledge. At this time, the teacher's role is to set up a situation where students can explore independently and guide them to acquire knowledge, instead of providing ready-made knowledge for students, fully believing in and mobilizing the enthusiasm of students, abolishing the examination-oriented education method of "one lecture, one lecture and one full 45 minutes". In the classroom, students are encouraged to do demonstration experiments. On the basis of full preview, students practice under the guidance of teachers before class to ensure the success of classroom experiments. Because students participate in the classroom demonstration experiment, the classroom atmosphere becomes relaxed and active, and students pay more attention to the observation of the experiment. While students observe the experiment carefully and intuitively, they are also concerned about the success of the peer experiment. The students who demonstrate on stage can enjoy the joy of the success of the experiment. Even the lessons of failure can benefit him for life. Which students can be honored to demonstrate? According to the type and difficulty of the experiment, students can be selected as a reward for students who have made significant progress in learning, but also as a reward for students who have poor academic performance and strong practical ability; and excellent students can be recommended as a model for students to learn, so that students can actively participate in teaching. Most of the classroom demonstrations and in-class experimental explorations can involve students, such as "Exploration of Human Exhaled Gases and Inhaled Gases" in which carbon dioxide is injected into clarified lime water: collecting human exhaled gases by drainage. While lamenting this experimental phenomenon, we should also think about and explain why it happened. In addition, in the experiments of oxygen, carbon dioxide and the properties of acid and alkali salts, more mobile phone opportunities are created for students. In the pre-class preparation, teachers should let students understand and grasp the operation essentials and steps, let them do it without fear of students'mistakes, teachers and students work together and participate in the design of experimental reports. In this way, students are not only the main body of the classroom, but also the chemical one. The protagonist in the middle school experiment. In the course of the experiment, the students'hands are more dexterous and their thinking is more mature.
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3. Solving Learning Problems by Chemistry Experiments
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Psychologists believe that perception and observation are the first stage in the cognitive process and also the direct cognitive stage. Only on the basis of perception and observation can people master the advanced stages of cognition, such as representation, imagination and thinking. In addition to the limited number of experiments for ninth grade students, there are some disadvantages in terms of quality, such as the unified mode of textbooks, and students'creative thinking can not be well trained and developed. In order to fill this kind of deficiency, teachers can arrange representative problems encountered in students'learning, such as typical examples that can broaden their thinking and develop creative thinking, through careful design, into students' experiments. Students explore by themselves, explore by themselves, and observe by themselves. Recognize and solve problems in the experience of success and failure.
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